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There are two families of receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.
Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory (see Hebbian theory).
The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.
Nevertheless, as more voltage-gated K channels become inactivated, the membrane potential recovers to its normal resting steady state..
Some neurons such as photoreceptor cells, for example, do not have myelinated axons that conduct action potentials.
Other unipolar neurons found in invertebrates do not even have distinguishing processes such as dendrites.